By John G. Webster (Editor)
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Due to the symmetries of hydrogenlike atoms the eigenstates are degenerate with respect to the angular momentum and the magnetic quantum number. Therefore the linear Stark effect can be observed only for those atoms and ions. For nonhydrogenic atoms, for example, alkali-metal atoms, the angular momentum degeneracy is removed due to the multielectron interaction of the atomic core and hence only the quadratic Stark effect can be observed. For stronger electric fields perturbation methods are no longer applicable and hence more advanced numerical methods have to be used to obtain the correct spectrum.
Strong electric and magnetic fields are not only of interest under laboratory conditions but also in quest of observed optical absorption structures of compact astronomical objects. For example, for magnetic white dwarf stars additional electric fields (13) of the order of 108 V/cm occur, which give rise to an observable shift of the spectral lines. Stark effects are not only due to external electric fields. Atomic beams with the beam direction not in coincidence with the magnetic field axis of an external magnetic field give rise to the so-called motional Stark effect.
28). Impact Ionization Ionization processes caused by the interaction with charged particles, like electrons, positrons, protons, or even ions, is called impact ionization. These collisions are of importance, for example, in plasma- and astrophysics. In a simplified model this ionization is solely caused by the Coulomb interaction between the charged projectile and the atomic or ion target. In a graphical description these processes can be described by A + B(q) → A+,∗ + B (q) + e− (34) with A the target atom or ion, B the projectile of charge q, Aϩ,* the higher ionized and, in general, excited target object after the scattering process, BЈ(q) is the projectile after the scattering process and eϪ the additional free electron due to the impact-ionization process.
45.Plasma Science by John G. Webster (Editor)