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By W. E. Knowles Middleton

This background of the thermometer contains controversy approximately its invention, the tale of other scales, Fahrenheit and centigrade, and the heritage of the sluggish medical then well known knowing of the concept that of temperature. no longer till 1800 did humans attracted to thermometers start to see sincerely what they have been measuring, and the impetus for bettering thermometry got here mostly from examine of the weather―the liquid-in-glass thermometer turned the meteorologist's software earlier than that of the chemist or physicist. this glorious introductory examine follows the improvement of indicating and recording thermometers until eventually contemporary occasions, emphasizing meteorological applications.

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The score used by Hughes was a standardized anomaly correlation (SAC), which accounted for the larger variability of sea level pressure at higher latitudes compared to lower latitudes. Unfortunately the SAC is not directly comparable to other scores such as the anomaly correlation (discussed in the next section). The fact that until 1976 the 3-day forecast scores from the model were essentially constant is an indication that their rather low skill was more based on synoptic experience than on model guidance.

The second goal of the ensemble forecasting, to provide guidance on the uncertainty of each forecast, is accomplished best by the use of two types of plots. The “spaghetti” plots show a single contour line for all 17 forecasts, and the probabilistic plots show, for example, what percentage of the ensemble predicts 24-h accumulated precipitation of more than 1 inch at each grid point (for probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts or pQPF). Both of them provide guidance on the reliability of the forecasts in an easy-to-understand way.

In the 3D-Var approach one defines a cost function proportional to the square of the distance between the analysis and both the background and the observations (Sasaki, 1970). The cost function is minimized directly to obtain the analysis. 2) measures the distance of a field x to the observations (the first term in the cost function) and the distance to the first guess or background x b (the second term in the cost function). The distances are scaled by the observation error covariance R and by the background error covariance B respectively.

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A history of the thermometer and its use in meteorology by W. E. Knowles Middleton

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