By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is likely one of the such a lot exciting rulers of historic Egypt. His atypical visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have motivated educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions about Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James ok. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten used to be no longer, as is frequently stated, an intensive advocating a brand new faith yet particularly a primitivist: that's, one that reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's notion used to be the outdated nation (2650-2400 B.C.E.), while the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unequalled head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier unearths that Akhenaten used to be a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only real author God, in accordance with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come upon that introduced his monotheistic non secular odyssey.
The ebook additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable courting to Israel's faith, providing a detailed comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out via students as encouraged through the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious studying of key texts, works of art, and archaeological reviews, Hoffmeier presents compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the impression of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Additional resources for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
Labib Habachi, Tell Basta (Cario: CASAE, 1957), figs. 2–3 and pl. 2–3. 117 For a helpful chart comparing all the statistics of the pyramids, see Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids (London: Thames & Hudson, 1997), 16–17. 115 116 When the Sun Ruled Egypt 25 in a pyramid. 119 As if to avoid comparison between his burial monument and those of his fathers at Giza, Shepseskaf located his large stone mastaba around 12 miles (19 k) to the south, between Dahshur and south Saqqara. The 5th Dynasty saw an embarrassing diminution of the size and quality of the pyramids, which seems to parallel a loss of prestige of the kingly office.
Faulkner, & E. F. Wente, The Literature of Ancient Egypt (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973), 15. , Story of Sinuhe, Wisdom of Amenemhet, Prophecy of Neferti). c. onward? On the literary and oral dimensions of folktales, see Susan T. Hollis, “Tales of Magic and Wonder from Ancient Egypt,” in CANE, 2255–2264. For studies on early 12th Dynasty apologetic literature, see A. de Buck, “La Litterérature et la politique sous la douzième dynastie,” in Symbolae ad jus et historian antiquitatis pertinentes Juli Christiano van Overn dedicatae (eds.
24 Clearly, the sacred city of Abydos was a site whose control was desired for historical, religious, and political reasons by both the south and the north. Meryibre’s allusions to the fighting at Abydos are a testimony to that desire. Historians generally agree that under the reign of the later 11th Dynasty Theban king Montuhotep II, Egypt was reunited politically after a period of war, thus ending the 1st Intermediate Period and ushering in the Middle Kingdom. He altered his Horus name twice.
Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier