By Hiroshi, MD Mitsumoto
This significant ebook covers each point of residing with ALS, from medical gains of the affliction to an outline of symptom administration to realizing its prognosis. significant sections care for overseeing remedy and rehabilitation, residing with ALS, the disease’s complicated part, end-of-life concerns, and assets. commonly revised and rewritten, this variation includes new chapters at the most modern techniques to treating ALS signs, using noninvasive ventilators, multidisciplinary workforce care, new guidance being constructed through the yankee Academy of Neurology for sufferers with ALS, using riluzole (Rilutek), and extra.
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Extra resources for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Guide for Patients and Families, Third Edition
Typically the weakness occurs in the arm or leg muscles or in the muscles that control speech and swallowing (the bulbar muscles). In general, in one third of patients the weakness begins in the arm; in another one third it begins in the leg. Approximately one fourth of patients first develop weakness in the bulbar muscles. The few remaining patients experience a generalized onset, with simultaneous involvement of the arms, legs, and bulbar muscles. On rare occasions weakness affects only one side of the body in the initial stages, or it resembles a nerve palsy ( paralysis) that occurs in nerves of the forearm (the radial or ulnar nerves) or a nerve at the shin called the peroneal nerve.
69. Miller RG, Moore D, Young LA, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology. 1996;47:1383–1388. 70. Schwarz GA, King G. Neuromuscular diseases of later maturity. Part 1. Geriatrics. 1955;10:197–207. 71. Brooks BR, Miller RG, Swash M, et al. El Escorial revisited: revised criteria for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ALS Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2000;1:293– 299. 2 The Clinical Features and Prognosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Hiroshi Mitsumoto The human brain has billions of nerve cells, or neurons.
ALS also affects the upper motor neurons, and the involvement of these two motor neuron groups produces the features that are characteristic of ALS. A brief overview of the upper and lower motor neuron anatomy is helpful to understand how the specific signs and symptoms develop in ALS. Upper Motor Neurons The upper motor neurons control the lower motor neurons. Anatomically, the upper motor neurons reside in the brain and brain stem, whereas the lower motor neurons are in the spinal cord. The brain’s outer layer, or cerebral cortex, is divided 26 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis into individual areas that specialize in particular functions.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Guide for Patients and Families, Third Edition by Hiroshi, MD Mitsumoto