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Read e-book online An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics PDF

By David G. Andrews

ISBN-10: 0521693187

ISBN-13: 9780521693189

A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This variation has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now incorporates a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in previous chapters, giving the scholar a extensive knowing of a few of the actual innovations underlying this most vital and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are built in general within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The booklet is a vital source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics, Earth technological know-how, planetary technological know-how, or utilized arithmetic direction.

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3 Hydrostatic balance For an atmosphere at rest, in static equilibrium, the net forces acting on any small portion of air must balance. 1. This is subject to a gravitational force g m downwards, where its mass m = ρ A z and g is the gravitational acceleration (assumed constant throughout this book). This force must be balanced by the difference between the upward pressure force p(z) A on the bottom of the cylinder and the downward pressure force p(z + z) A on the top. We therefore have gρ by cancelling A z = p(z) A − p(z + z) A; A and using the Taylor expansion p(z + z) ≈ p(z) + dp dz z, we get the equation for hydrostatic balance, dp = −gρ.

1 μm corresponds to RH 101%. e. e → es . 57) implies that condensation of a small quantity of vapour increases its radius slightly, and so the droplet continues to grow by further condensation. On the other hand, if a small amount of evaporation occurs at the equilibrium radius, the droplet continues to shrink by evaporation, eventually disappearing altogether. 1. 45 Cloud formation Fig. 12 Plot of relative humidity RH = e/es over a spherical droplet in unstable equilibrium, as a function of droplet radius a, at 5 ◦ C.

Since p = p0 10 This may be shown to hold if Lμ /(c T) s p T θ 1/κ , 1; since L/(cp T) 10 for typical lower-atmospheric temperatures, this approximation holds when μs 100 g kg−1 . 7 it can be seen that this is true over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 11. 11 In older works, φ was used instead of S, hence the name T–φ diagram, or tephigram. 41 The tephigram Fig. 10 Tephigram, showing isotherms (solid lines sloping up to the right, labelled in ◦ C), dry adiabatics (solid lines sloping up to the left, labelled in ◦ C) and isobars (slightly curved, roughly horizontal, lines labelled in hPa), lines of constant saturation mixing ratio (dashed, labelled in g kg−1 ) and saturated adiabatics (strongly curved lines that approach the dry adiabatics near the top of the diagram).

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An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics by David G. Andrews

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