By Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier
Published by way of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Coastal and Estuarine stories, quantity 49.
The Arctic Ocean is the least understood ocean on the earth, and but its significance to the world's oceans and weather is tremendous. for instance, it's been instructed that the Arctic is the sector probably to be laid low with elevated atmospheric temperatures which would happen due to anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. It additionally performs a severe function in international oceanic stream, in that it modulates the formation of deep water within the North Atlantic through ice export. regardless of its pivotal function in worldwide approaches, the Arctic continues to be poorly understood. This quantity is an try to spotlight and synthesize many of the fresh advances in our wisdom of Arctic oceanography and comprises subject matters that may curiosity actual, organic, chemical, and geological oceanographers in addition to atmospheric scientists.
That the Arctic is so poorly recognized relative to different oceans is no surprise. it really is mostly ice-covered all year long, with just some of its continental cabinets changing into ice?]free in summer time. Its ice is generally multi?]year and extremely thick, making penetration into the deeper parts most unlikely other than by means of the main robust ice?]breakers. even if, lately new applied sciences were utilized to the Arctic, and our realizing of the actual, chemical, organic and geological techniques which happen inside it really is quickly expanding. satellite tv for pc sensors discover the Arctic continuously, permitting us to stick with ice move, storms, and openings within the pack ice that had by no means been saw formerly. Moorings, ships and buoys now can stand up to a number of the rigors of the Arctic, and observations of the water column and seabed have gotten extra universal. ultimately, as a result of its value to worldwide techniques, stories of the Arctic are attracting scientists not just from Arctic international locations yet from countries world wide. Arctic oceanography really has turn into a world effort.
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Additional resources for Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves
C. Comiso,Sea ice classificationand surfacetemperaturedeterminationusing AdvancedVery High ResolutionRadiometersatellitedata,J. ,99(C3),5201-5218, 1994. O. Ramseier,and E. Svendsen,Polarizationeffectsin sea ice signatures, IEEE J. , 0E-9(5), 333-338, 1984. , CoastalZone Color Scannerimageryin the marginalice zone,Mar. , 20, 14-27, 1986. G. and D. Clark, Satellitecolor observations of springbloomingin Bering Sea shelf watersduringthe ice edgeretreatin 1980,J. ,92, 7127-7139, 1987. , and E. Yeh, CZCS sensorringing maskcomparison,in CaseStudiesfor SeaWIFS calibration and validation, 13, NASA TM 104566, 21-29, 1994.
While economicsmight be the main drivingforce behindsuchsystems,they afforduniqueresearchopportunities including:intercomparison of imagesof the same regionby differentsensors,usingdata from differentsensorsto derivea geophysical parameter,andusingderivedparameters from differentsensorsto studycauseandeffects behinda phenomenon. An exampleof Arcticdatafrom two differentsensors but from the samesatelliteis shownin Figure 14. This is especially the casewhenthe seaice emissivitychangesquitesubstantially on accountof onset of melt,mettponding, freeze/thawperiods,andonsetof refreezing.
5•L , • -. • --. :7-•--:•:::• ........ •. •. •:•,. -•.. : ;/;....... ' •-• 150o K .... •. • .. •............ '--•.. -•-:. ' . - M , •-:;, • '•,,• ½... ;. -.. ,•"•. •.. -. : - -: . 9oN N . Color-coded 19-GHz SSM/Ibrightness temperatures atvertical polarization andERS-1 SARimages during onset ofspring. )areindicated intheSSM/Iimages. TheJune14,1992,SARdatashowintermediate conditions. mationaboutthetransformation of the backscatter eachfloe andothersurfacesduringthe period. ,seesame areas labeled a,b,c,indifferent days).
Arctic Oceanography: Marginal Ice Zones and Continental Shelves by Walker O. Smith Jr., Jacqueline M. Grebmeier