By William Oldendorf M.D., William Oldendorf Jr. (auth.)
This e-book isn't really meant as a normal textual content on MRI. it truly is written as an intro duction to the sphere, for nonexperts. We current right here an easy exposition of convinced elements of MRI which are very important to appreciate to take advantage of this priceless diagnostic software intelligently in a medical environment. the fundamental ideas are provided nonmathematically, utilizing no equations and no less than symbols and abbreviations. For these requiring a deeper realizing of MRI, this ebook may also help facilitate the transition to plain texts. Chapters 1 via four offer a basic advent to the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and the way it really is utilized in imaging. bankruptcy 1 discus ses magnetic resonance, utilizing a compass needle to illustrate. In bankruptcy 2, the transition to the magnetic resonance of the atomic nucleus is made. bankruptcy three describes the foundations of imaging. In bankruptcy four, the phrases T 1 and T 2 are defined and their courting to tissue characterization; the joys damental position of thermal magnetic noise in T 1 and T 2 is discussed.
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Extra resources for Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
As a result, the field on one edge of the slice being imaged is stronger than on the other. How the scanner creates this second gradient will be discussed in Chapter 6. Here, it is important to know only that the transverse gradient can be in any direction across the isolated slice. For simplicity, in the figure it is shown increasing from left to right along the X-axis, shoulder to shoulder (Figure 12). The result of applying a transverse gradient is that dIe nuclei in the isolated slice of tissue, which had all been oscillating at the same frequency, now find themselves in magnetic fields of differing strengths.
We ordinarily think of tissue analysis as the measurement of the amount of a given substance per unit volume of tissue, for example, the amount of glucose in a volume of serum. CT measures regional specific gravity and iodine concentration. Since in MRI the signal strength after a single pulse is proportional to the number of hydrogen nuclei, the simplest method of scanning shows distribution of hydrogen nuclei. Most hydrogens are in tissue water and fat. In practice, such simple hydrogen content turns out to be of little interest, because there is much hydrogen in essentially all tissues and little regional contrast is seen.
This type of event is known as a stimulated emission. While T 2 is affected by magnetic noise fluctuations at any frequency, T 1 is affected only by those at the resonant larmor frequency. Thermal motion and temperature Thermal motion produces (for pure water) a range of frequencies starting at zero and extending up into the thousands of millions of cycles per second, far above any larmor frequencies likely to be found in imaging. water) a range of frequencies starting at zero and extending up into the thousands of millions of cycles per second, far above any larmor frequencies likely to be found in imaging.
Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging by William Oldendorf M.D., William Oldendorf Jr. (auth.)