By Carlo M. Cipolla
During this vintage paintings Cipolla explores the sluggish yet complicated strategy of improvement that reworked Europe from its quite vulnerable place in advert a thousand into the hugely dynamic and robust society of 1700.
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Additional info for Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700
If the maid of the Florentine craftsman Bartolomeo Masi was able to save fourteen florins in five years, it was because her food, accommodation, and probably some clothing were provided by her employer’s family. It would be a serious mistake to believe that the demand for services by the wealthy classes was limited to the demand for domestic servants. The variety of service personnel in demand included lawyers and notaries; teachers for children; persons performing religious ministrations; various workers and artists who maintained and embellished the living quarters; in the case of the nobility, various types of entertainers, such as musicians, poets, dwarfs and jesters, falconers, and stable boys; and last, but not least, doctors, in connection with which, early in the eighteenth century, the famous physician, Dr Bernardino Ramazzini, commented, If the laborer does not recover rapidly he returns to the workshop still ailing and he neglects the doctor’s prescriptions, if they stretch over a long period.
5 grams; at Easter 1960, while leveling the border of a country road, a worker discovered a pot containing 280 coins of vellon, dating from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; early in 1961, while demolishing a wall at a farm in Chappes, a farmer uncovered a pot containing 640 coins dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; in October 1961, at Vancé (Mayenne), while bulldozing a wall, a farmer uncovered three pots containing 5 silver coins, 12 coins of vellon and 4,483 copper coins, all dating from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; in March 1962, while excavating land to make foundations for a new building at Montargis, construction workers found 132 gold coins dating from the period 1445–1587.
Psychological and sociocultural factors b. the level of income c. income distribution There is no need to expend many words to illustrate point (a). It is obvious that some individuals are more inclined to spend while others are more inclined to save. It is worth mentioning, however, that on a macroeconomic level, sociocultural factors powerfully influence people’s propensity to consume or, conversely, to save. Even in the absence of organized publicity, factors such as fashion, emulation, ostentation, or the prevailing conditions of security or insecurity affect the amount of current income spent DEMAND 25 on consumption.
Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700 by Carlo M. Cipolla