By Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre, the seminal smarty-pants of mid-century pondering, introduced the existentialist fleet with the booklet of Being and Nothingness in 1943. although the booklet is thick, dense, and unfriendly to careless readers, it's essential to these drawn to the philosophy of awareness and loose will. a few of his arguments are incorrect, others are doubtful, yet for the main half Sartre's recommendations penetrate deeply into primary philosophical territory. Basing his notion of self-consciousness loosely on Heidegger's "being," Sartre proceeds to sharply delineate among awake activities ("for themselves") and subconscious ("in themselves"). it's a awake selection, he claims, to reside one's existence "authentically" and in a unified model, or not--this is the elemental freedom of our lives.
Drawing on historical past and his personal wealthy mind's eye for examples, Sartre bargains compelling supplementations to his extra formal arguments. The waiter who detaches himself from his job-role sticks within the reader's reminiscence with higher tenacity than the long dialogue of inauthentic existence and serves to convey the total strength of the argument to lifestyles. no matter if you're no longer an angst-addicted poet from North seashore, Being and Nothingness will give you a deep dialog with a super mind--unfortunately, a unprecedented locate nowadays.
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Additional info for Being and Nothingness
Tr. THE PURSUIT OF BEING xlvii have converted them all into a new dualism: that of finite and infinite. n fact can not be reduced to a finite series of manifesta tions since each one of them is a relation to a subject constantly chang ing. Although an object may disclose itself only through a single Abschat tung, the sole fact of there being a subject implies the possibility of multiplying the points of view on that Abschattung. This suffices to mul tiply to infinity the Abschattung under consideration.
In this case I suddenly realize that I exist as an object for the Other, that I possess a self which he knows and which I can never know, and that I am vulnerable to the Other, who may anticipate and block my possibilities for action. Thus the revelation of the Other is the Look. I experience him as subject when he looks at me and as object when I look at him. And upon this un stable shifting of subject and object is erected the whole edifice of Sartrian love, hate, sadism, masochism, and even indifference, all of which to gether constitute that conflict which is at the basis of all inter-human relationships.
By not considering being as the condition of revelation but rather being as an appearance which can be determined in concepts, we have understoond first of all that knowledge can not by itself give an account of being; that is, the being of the phenom enon can not be reduced to the phenomenon of being. " Tr. lin ill 1111'1 ii" I'" I Iii i" I I' " ,i i' I I: BEING AND NOTHINGNESS phenomenon of being is "ontological" in the sense that we 'speak of the ontological proof of St. Anselm and Descartes.
Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre