By Donald Malcolm Reid
Cairo collage has been crucially very important in shaping the nationwide lifetime of twentieth-century Egypt. It has proficient a lot of the political, specialist and cultural elite; medical professionals and attorneys, novelists and philosophers, bankers and top ministers have all studied there. based in 1908 and for a few years competing in simple terms with the spiritual al-Azhar, the European-inspired Cairo college quick grew to become the top indigenous version for different kingdom universities within the sector and its effect has unfold even past the Arab global. Professor Reid has drawn on collage information hitherto untapped via Western students and on a variety of different Arabic and Western assets. He explains the university's half within the nationwide quest for independence from Britain, within the perennial stress among secular and spiritual global perspectives, and within the push for a extra egalitarian society. Nasser and Sadat, Kings Fuad and Faruq, nationalist hero Saad Zaghlul and Nobel Prize winner Najib Mahfuz, all function prominently during this attention-grabbing background of Egypt's most vital smooth academic establishment.
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Additional info for Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt
Noegel,Prayer,Magic and Stars 8/27/03 1:06 PM Page 25 Here, There, and Anywhere 25 Several feet below the ground is buried a receptacle containing the bones or relics of ancestors. Directly above this is a subterranean storage vessel containing next year’s seed rice. Placed above this, on the surface of the ground, is the bed of the primary householder couple. These three loci interact through symmetrical relations of exchange. The power of the ancestors enlivens the seed rice and the conjugal bed.
Thus, rulers, who needed to maintain order over their subjects on earth, had to observe through divination the omens in the heavens and to respond with the appropriate rituals to ward off the evil portended by some omens. As Rochberg illustrates, implicit in the practice of these rituals is the possibility that some procedure could persuade the gods to prevent the occurrence of the predicted event. Mark S. Smith, in “Astral Religion and the Representation of Divinity: The Cases of Ugarit and Judah,” compares the conception of divinity in West Semitic religion, as revealed by tablets excavated at the late Bronze Age port of Ugarit in northern Syria, with that of Judah, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
47 As is characteristic of religions of “anywhere,” it places great value on direct experience of transcendent beings, both as a demonstration of power and as a means of gaining esoteric knowledge. In the vast panorama of religions this volume encompasses, it is possible to propose a ﬁnal taxonomic generalization, one that depends on contrastive worldviews and their attendant soteriologies. We may distinguish between religions of “sanctiﬁcation,” which celebrate the present ordered world, having as their goal its maintenance and repair, and religions of “salvation,” which seek to escape the structures and strictures of this world through activities having as their goal a con- 45.
Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt by Donald Malcolm Reid