By Gabriele Centi, Paola Lanzafame (auth.), László Guczi, András Erdôhelyi (eds.)
The bring up of greenhouse gases within the surroundings and the reduce of the on hand volume of fossil fuels necessitate discovering new substitute and sustainable strength resources within the close to destiny. This publication summarizes the function and the chances of catalysis within the construction of recent power companies and within the usage of alternative power assets. the most aim of this paintings is to head past these effects mentioned in fresh literature by way of settling on new advancements which may bring about breakthroughs within the creation of different power. The publication discusses using biomass or biomass derived fabrics as strength resources, hydrogen formation in methanol and ethanol reforming, biodiesel construction, and the usage of biogases. Separate sections additionally take care of gas cells, photocatalysis, and sunlight cells, that are all promising methods for power creation that rely seriously on catalysts.
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H2 produced in this way has still a cost higher than H2 from fossil fuels, for example, by methane steam reforming. 70/gge (gallons of gasoline equivalent) by 2012. Current best processes for water electrolysis have an efficiency of 50–80%, so that 1 kg of hydrogen requires 50–80 kWh of electricity. 997 kg). The cost is highly depending on the cost of electrical energy. Considering that actual cost of production of electrical energy by PV cells (or other renewable energy sources) is about 2–4 times higher than the average electrical energy production cost (the cost varies considerably during peak hours), it is possible to derive that H2 production cost by PV-PEM combination is about 6–8 times higher than that from fossil fuels, but this value would considerably depend on a number of factors, such as production capacity, efficiency of PV cell and solar irradiation, and fossil fuel cost.
For example, ethanol has only 66% of the heating value of gasoline and thus, cars running on ethanol-rich mixtures like E85 get a 30% lower gas mileage . Biomass-based hydrocarbon fuels, in contrast, offer equivalent energy content and gas mileage performance to fuels derived from petroleum. (c) Hydrophobicity. Fuels that do not absorb water are highly desirable. The addition of oxygenates to regular gasoline, however, increases the water solubility of the mixture. In the case of ethanol/gasoline blends, water contamination can trigger a phase separation of both components which is an important concern especially in cooler climates.
Int J Life Cycle Assess 15(1):53–66 41. Cavani F, Centi G, Perathoner S, Trifiro´ F (2009) Sustainable industrial chemistry. WileyVCH, Weinheim 42. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2009) EPA lifecycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable fuels. Report EPA-420-F-09-024 43. Hiederer R, Ramos F, Capitani C, Koeble R, Blujdea V, Gomez O, Mulligan D, Marelli L (2010) Biofuels: a new methodology to estimate GHG emissions from global land use change. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, report EUR 24483 EN—2010 44.
Catalysis for Alternative Energy Generation by Gabriele Centi, Paola Lanzafame (auth.), László Guczi, András Erdôhelyi (eds.)