By Judith Maizels, Chris Caseldine (auth.), Judith K. Maizels, Chris Caseldine (eds.)
3 new biota and extinction of others, and vast soil erosion attaining virtually catastrophic proportions have ended in desertification of many upland parts and abandonment via neighborhood populations. The position of climatic swap rather than deforestation and sheep grazing in growing those new environments has proved a different factor of significant controversy. whereas our knowing of ancient environmental adjustments continues to be insufficient, our wisdom of procedures which are enhancing the present-day panorama is additionally sparse and selective. Little is understood of energetic periglacial procedures, slope instabilities, and charges of soil erosion through slope wash and aeolian shipping. Coastal strategies of abrasion and seashore formation were studied simply in the neighborhood. such a lot of our info on contemporary or lively techniques contains files of glacier fluctuations, volcanic eruptions and jOkulhlaup occasions, yet sti11little is understood of the mechanisms and approaches of panorama swap effected by means of those occasions. This quantity of papers, in keeping with a convention backed by means of the Quaternary learn organization and the Geologists organization and held on the college of Aberdeen in April 1989, addresses lots of those the most important uncertainties relating to environmental alterations in Iceland from the Lateglacial onwards. The papers make a tremendous contribution to dispelling many past uncertainties and clarifying parts of controversy. a number of the papers problem conventional and poorly supported principles, changing them with hypotheses in line with new information and new insights derived from the growth of wider medical services and conception. the amount makes a speciality of 3 significant components of study in particular.
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Extra info for Environmental Change in Iceland: Past and Present
On the basis of botanical studies in North Iceland Gelting (1934) and S teind6rsson (1962) con~luded that ice-free areas and plant refugia must have existed there during the maximum glaciation. The ice-free areas were, according to the botanical studies, mainly located in the peripheral and mountainous parts of Northwest, North, and East Iceland. The thickness of the major glaciers in North Iceland is an important factor when discussing the possible existence and extent of nunataks in North Iceland during the maximum glaciation.
At some time during the general glacier recession in North Iceland, the northernmost part of the Fnj6skadalur basin became ice-free and the first of at least eight high-level icelakes wereformed (NorMahl, 1983). The formation of such an ice-lake in Fnj6skadalur was dependent upon the morphology of the area and the extent of glaciers within it, and ice-lakes could only be formed when Dalsmynni and Lj6savatnsskaro were simultaneously blocked by glacier tongues from glaciers in Eyjafjorour and Baroardalur, respectively (Hospers, 1954; Trausti Einarsson, 1959; NorMahl, 1983).
NorCldahl, 1979). Lateral moraines in GIjotargil, at SyClri-JOkulsa further south in Flateyjardalur, and the very conspicuous moraines in Fossdalur on LatrastrOnd (Fig. 4) and in BreiCIaskal in FjOn'}ur are probably of the same age as the moraine in front of BrettingsstaCladalir (Non'}dahl, 1983). Lateral and terminal moraines in SauCladalur, Karlsardalur, Holtsdalur, and Halsdalur on the west side of EyjafjOrClur (Hjartarson, 1973), were probably formed at the same time. A comparable glacier advance has been demonstrated in Glerardalur above Akureyri (Hallsd6ttir, 1973, 1984).
Environmental Change in Iceland: Past and Present by Judith Maizels, Chris Caseldine (auth.), Judith K. Maizels, Chris Caseldine (eds.)