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Download e-book for iPad: Erosion and Environment. Environmental Sciences and by Miloš Holý, Asit K. Biswas and Margaret R. Biswas (Auth.)

By Miloš Holý, Asit K. Biswas and Margaret R. Biswas (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0080244661

ISBN-13: 9780080244662

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Example text

Corrasion i s the abrasion of rocks by s o i l p a r t i c l e s which are d e f l a t e d by the wind. I t s i n t e n s i t y i s determined by the r e s i s t a n c e of the rock formation, the type and shape of the wind borne s o i l p a r t i c l e s and wind v e l o c i t y . The l e a s t r e s i s t a n t rocks to t h i s type of e r o s i o n are rocks t h a t are easy to c u t , such as sandstone. Areas a f f e c t e d by c o r r a s i o n have a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r . Corrasion shapes the rocks i n t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c formations, such as p i l l a r s , g a l l e r i e s , rock towns ( F i g .

1 0 ) . The shape and f o r e s t cover of the catchment was not considered. In a s i t u a t i o n where d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s have not been made, e m p i r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s w i l l be found s u i t a b l e for a s c e r t a i n i n g maximum runoff from small catchments. 01) which i s important for r i v e r t r a i n i n g . With regard to e r o s i o n c o n t r o l on a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s the obtained values are e x c e s s i v e l y high and measures suggested on such a b a s i s would in most cases not be economic.

Specht ( 5 5 ) q max = . 10 36 x A/T / . 8 . 14) 54 Erosion and Environment where q m a x is maximal specific runoff (m3 s"1 km" 2 ) i is the intensity of considered rainfall (mm per hour) P is the area of the catchment (km2) T is the duration of the considered rainfall (hrs). 20 40 60 100 surface runoff concentration Fig. 43. Determination of surface runoff a f t e r R. M. Cormack. [min] concentration The formula w r i t t e n by D. L. Sokolovskiy ( c i t . 6v 55 Mechanism of Erosion Processes L i s the length of the flow (km) v i s the average runoff r a t e (m s _ 1 ) .

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Erosion and Environment. Environmental Sciences and Applications by Miloš Holý, Asit K. Biswas and Margaret R. Biswas (Auth.)


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