By Jack R. Hall (auth.), James F. Lawrence (eds.)
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Extra info for Liquid Chromatography in Environmental Analysis
Recent studies with aqueous sediment cores (19) suggest that the concentrations of PAH detected correspond relatively well with the energy production from various fuels, indicating that anthropogenic combustion or pyrolysis may be the major source of PAH, not only in air but also in aqueous media. PAH also appears in the environment from natural sources that include forest fires and volcanic activities. Another natural source is the insitu synthesis from degraded biological materials, which possibly have led to the formation of the PAH compounds in various sediments, fossils, and fossil fuels.
The currently accepted nomenclature is that adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] and by the Chemical Abstracts Service. Shown in Table 1 is a list of PAH that are commonly encountered in environmental samples. The chemical names, structures, numbering system, and acronyms used in this chapter, along with their relative carcinogenicities are presented in the table. In addition to PAH, Table 1 gives structures of representative compounds in the main classes of poly- POLYCYCLIC AROMATICS: ANALYSIS BY HPLC 21 cyclic aromatic nitrogen- (PANH) and sulfur- (PASH) heterocycles that have been found in environmental samples.
The first sixteen PAH containing 2-6 condensed rings, as shown in Table 1, have been recently identified by The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States as priority pollutants (18). The carcinogenic activity of individual PAH is dependent on its molecular structure. Within the large class of polycyclic hydrocarbons, there have been many structure:-activity studies. These have been reviewed by Searle (7). Briefly, the carcinogenicity ofPAH can be summarized as follows: Many of the carcinogenic PAH contain the benzo[a)anthracene, B[a]A, nucleus.
Liquid Chromatography in Environmental Analysis by Jack R. Hall (auth.), James F. Lawrence (eds.)