By Richard E. W. Adams
Deep in the woodland in northern Guatemala lie the ruins of Río Azul, a Maya urban that reached one-third the scale of Tikal. stumbled on and partly explored within the early Sixties, Río Azul and the encompassing sector have been extra totally investigated among 1983 and 1987 by means of an archaeological group led by means of Richard E. W. Adams. during this precis, Adams integrates the findings of box archaeologists with these of the epigraphers and artwork historians to recreate the lifetime of this Maya urban from the little-known Early vintage period.
Remains within the Río Azul sector date from 900 B.C. to A.D. 850. the knowledge point out that, in contrast to so much Maya towns which have been studied, Río Azul was once a frontier city, an place of business, with alternating safety and alternate outpost capabilities. approximately A.D. 385, the Río Azul zone was once conquered and town based through Tikal, serving as a Teotihuacan-linked garrison for that capital. the majority of the greater than seven-hundred constructions came across inside of Río Azul have been erected among A.D. 390 and 530.
Acres of pavement have been laid down round a few thirty complexes of apartments, temples, and tombs amazing for the brightly painted crimson hieroglyphs and work of art on their partitions. the flowery complexes and luxurious artifacts recommend a urban with a heavy share of aristocratic households and retainers.
Around A.D. 530, Río Azul seems to were all at once destroyed. the town was once deserted, then reoccupied--only to stagnate and eventually cave in, like many different vintage Maya towns, within the past due 9th century.
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Extra resources for Rio Azul: An Ancient Maya City
It attempts to uncover the microfoundations of individual behavior that connect hypothesized causes and outcomes, but in doing so the method of process-tracing easily loses sight of collective actors. It is also limited to within-case analysis and difficult to apply in meaningful comparative ways. With regard to the privileged level of analysis, my comparative sequential method lies in between the macrosocial comparative historical method and the micro, individual-level, decision-process–oriented one.
10 10 What follows is a summary account of the variations observed in the intergovernmental balance of power in the four countries. For more detailed accounts and measurements, please refer to the second part of Chapter 2. 1. First Cycle of Postdevelopmental Decentralization Policies in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico, 1978–1997 Argentina Administrative Decentralization Fiscal Decentralization Political Decentralization 1978: Primary schools transferred to the provinces 1988: New revenue-sharing law 1994–1996: Popular election of the mayor of Buenos Aires; autonomy to the City of Buenos Aires 1988: Decentralization of health 1983: Passos Porto Amendment 1980–1982: Popular election of governors 1993–1994: Decentralization of education to departments and municipalities 1991: Increase of automatic transfers of revenues to departments and municipalities 1986: Popular election of mayors 1983–1986: Bilateral agreements with some states for the decentralization of education 1995: Reform of the fiscal coordination law 1983: Article 115 on municipal autonomy 1997: Creation of new budget line (Ramo 33) directed to states and municipalities 1986: Creation of Mexico City’s legislative assembly 1992: Secondary schools transferred to the provinces Brazil Colombia Mexico 1992: Decentralization of education to all the states 1988: Increase of 1988: Municipal automatic transfers autonomy recognized of revenues to states in the constitution and municipalities 1991: Popular election of governors 1996: Popular election of the mayor of Mexico City As a result of postdevelopmental decentralization, Brazilian and Colombian governors and mayors currently have more fiscal resources, deliver and manage more social services, have greater constitutional autonomy from the central government, and are better organized to collectively represent their territorial interests.
At the micro level, scholars have searched for the causes of decentralization on the incentives of politicians and have asked, why would national politicians agree to give power away? At this level of analysis, the most elegant and encompassing theory for the adoption of fiscal and political decentralization in electoral democracies in Latin America is found in the works of Kathleen O’Neill (1999, 2003, 2005). Focusing on the electoral incentives of politicians and analyzing the countries of the Andean region (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela), O’Neill argues that presidents are more likely to propose decentralizing measures when electoral support for their parties is weak at the national level but strong at the subnational level, and when the overall electoral support for their parties has been stable over time, such that they can strategize over decentralization with some degree of certainty.
Rio Azul: An Ancient Maya City by Richard E. W. Adams