By Adrian W. Zorgniotti (auth.), Adrian W. Zorgniotti M.D. (eds.)
It has to be thought of that there's not anything tougher to hold out, nor extra uncertain of good fortune, nor extra risky to address, than to start up a brand new order of items. Machiavelli: The Prince (1513) those are the complaints of a convention on Temperature and Environmental components and the Testis which happened at long island college university of medication, December eighth and ninth, 1989. there's sturdy cause to think that this used to be the 1st of its type to deal with, solely, the consequences of temperature for this hugely thermosensitive organ and its worthy genetic shipment. The organizers of the convention was hoping to stimulate curiosity during this sector which, mockingly, has a substantial literature yet which has got scant recognition and occasionally outright competition from clinicians specialist in male infertility. there were experiences of the connection of temperature to copy beginning within the mid-18th Century with observations of the connection of water temperature to spawning of fish. there's additionally an unlimited literature at the deleterious results of externally utilized warmth upon spermatogenesis yet little examine of the chance that intrinsic warmth could be a massive etiologic think about subfertile semen. this day, fertility examine has mostly overlooked this in prefer of analysis in parts that have no longer produced successes, when it comes to stay births, corresponding to what could be bought through varicocelectomy (when applicable) or scrotal hypothermia: viz. 1. focus upon the endocrine facets of testicular functionality and its relation to spermatogenesis.
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1957), a scrotal skin surface temperature of 29-30°C in the standing naked state at an ambient temperature of 24°C, increased by some degrees after dressing (jockey or boxer shorts, trousers, shirt and sweater), and somewhat higher if the subject sat with crossed legs for another 20-30 minutes (Table I). Such results indicate that the human testis and epididymis are subject almost uninterruptedly throughout life to a temperature several degrees higher than that at which the human male tract evolved.
The lower temperature is of great importance for the maintenance of normal testicular functions, particularly the process of sperma togenesis. Clearly, the existing mechanisms for controlling testicular temperature must have developed through evolutionary processes to assure the survival of the species; however, the reason as to why nature chose this particular form of adaptation is not clear. ) interfere with normal sperm production, often resulting in lack of fertility, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the heatinduced damage are still not known (Van Demark and Free, 1970; Steinberger and Steinberger, 1972; Keel and Abney, 1980, 1981; Kandeel and Swerdloff, 1988; Abney and Keel, 1989).
Steroid biosynthesis in the abdominal testes revealed several alterations compared to that in scrotal testis. The conversion mediated by 17 a-hydroxylase and 17 B-ketosteroid reductase was lower, and the conversion mediated by 20 a-dehydrogenase was higher in the abdominal testis. These results support previously reported observations on the impaired conversion of progesterone by testicular tissue from bilaterally cryptorchid adult rats (Ficher and Steinberger, 1982). , 1984a). In a related study by Bergh and Damber (1984), unilateral cryptorchidism was induced in adult rats for 24 hours, and its effect on testicular morphology and intra testicular testosterone concentration after hCG-stimulation was investigated.
Temperature and Environmental Effects on the Testis by Adrian W. Zorgniotti (auth.), Adrian W. Zorgniotti M.D. (eds.)