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Read e-book online Temperature and Toxicology: An Integrative, Comparative, and PDF

By Christopher J. Gordon

ISBN-10: 0849330246

ISBN-13: 9780849330247

ISBN-10: 1420037900

ISBN-13: 9781420037906

Thermoregulation is key for survival however the interaction among poisonous insults and thermoregulatory mechanisms is usually poorly understood. Temperature and Toxicology: An Integrative, Comparative, and Environmental process is the 1st significant textual content to review the integrative thermoregulatory responses of mammals which are uncovered to toxicants. simply because environmental body structure is additionally the most important in toxicological responses, this quantity additionally examines the function of environmental temperature within the modulation of mobile mechanisms of toxicity. The ebook starts through explaining the significance of temperature in toxicological experiences, and the way all organic procedures are depending on temperature. It then studies the fundamentals of temperature rules in homeotherms and poikilotherms, and addresses whole-animal and in vitro reviews relating to the consequences of temperature on toxicity. The textual content examines thermoregulatory reaction to poisonous insult, and the way responses impact restoration and strength survival. It describes hypothermic reaction in rodents to febrile and hyperthermic reactions in people, and discusses the relevance of warmth and chilly pressure on human exposures to airborne toxins and different toxicants. This quantity offers an intensive comparability of physiological responses of invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and mammals, and makes a speciality of the impression of endocrine disruption. It then considers how toxicants and thermal pressure reason the expression of tension proteins, via a examine of the impression of genetic variability. The booklet concludes with an exam of thermoregulatory reaction to typical pollution and venoms.

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Sample text

However, rodents exposed to toxicants undergo marked reductions in core temperature, and the responsiveness of CNS thermal receptors is thus pertinent to consider. In birds, integration of thermal stimuli in the spinal cord is thought to take on mor e importance as compared to mammals (Simon, 1999). 3 Neurochemical Mechanisms The CNS’s control of body temperature involves a complex interaction between many neurotransmitters, modulators, and hormones. A basic understanding of these processes is essential, especially in cases where the neurochemical mechanism of a toxicant is known and thus allows one to speculate on the possible effects on thermoregulation.

Actually, the core and shell temperatures were likely changing in a parallel fashion from the toxicant, but the implication of any statement of body temperature is really a reference to the temperature of the core. 3). 3). 6 39 38–39 39 38–39 38–39 39 38 37–38 41–42 43 UCT (°C) 24 28 28 26 30 13 18 24 5 20 13 31 34 34 34 31 20 25 27 16 26 31 0 19 20 20 29 30 Source: Most data from Altman and Dittmer (1966); data for rodents from Gordon (1993). 20 Ⅲ Temperature and Toxicology relatively high core temperature, about 2 to 3°C higher than that of most rodents and humans.

Recognized approximately 40 years ago, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a key facet of nonshivering thermogenesis and has been one of the most intensely studied thermoregulatory processes (Himms-Hagen, 1990; Argyropoulos and Harper, 2002). Rodents rely on BAT as a major source of heat when exposed acutely and chronically to a cold environment. , rabbit), and chiroptera (bats). It also occurs in appreciable amounts in the newborn of large mammals, including cow, goat, and humans. BAT also serves as an important source of heat in the arousal from hibernation and recovery from anesthetic-induced hypothermia, provides heat to elevate body temperature during fever, and is crucial in the development of thermoregulation from newborn to adult.

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Temperature and Toxicology: An Integrative, Comparative, and Environmental Approach by Christopher J. Gordon

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