By Gerald N. Izenberg
Even supposing mostly sympathetic to Freud's medical fulfillment, the existentialists criticized Freudian metapsychology as irrelevant to a really humanistic psychology. Gerald Izenberg evaluates the critique of Freud within the paintings of 2 existential philosophers, Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre, and existential psychiatrists, Ludwig Binswanger and Medard Boss.
His e-book translates the connection of psychoanalysis and existentialism and strains the historical past of a difficulty within the eu rationalist culture. the writer unveils the positivist foundations of Freud's thought of that means and discusses the reactions it provoked within the paintings of Binswanger, Boss, and Sartre. Probing underneath the methodological dispute, he indicates that the argument concerned a problem to the notion of the self that had ruled ecu notion because the Enlightenment. Existentialism, reflecting the turmoil of the inter-war and post-war years, supplied a thought of motivation greater capable of account for Freud's scientific information than his personal rationalist metapsychology. This idea made problematical the existentialist concept of authenticity and freedom, even if, and so the try to offer a replacement ethic and idea of psychological future health led to failure, even though within the technique the elemental questions have been posed that has to be responded in any sleek social theory.
Originally released in 1976.
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Additional resources for The Existentialist Critique of Freud: The Crisis of Autonomy (Princeton Legacy Library)
Within this framework, the first problem was the clinicalnosological one of classifying diseases—regularly appearing series and sequences of clinically detectable pathological manifestations—but the ultimate purpose of this classification was to discover causes. The effort of the early nineteenthcentury clinical school was to correlate the diagnostic results of clinical examination with the anatomical lesions discovered through autopsy. With the advance of the basic sciences through the century, this approach was supplemented by the attempt to study disease as a function of pathological physi ology, that is, as a process rather than as a static entity.
Freud's Scientific Beginnings," The American Imago, Vol. vi, Sept. 1949, pp. 162-196; H. F. Ellenberger, "Fechner and Freud," Bui- 36 FREUD'S THEORY OF MEANING The compelling force of Meynert's neurological psychology for Freud was its apparent fulfillment of the contemporary criteria for truly scientific explanation. These had been laid down for the sciences of man by one of the founders of the movement that came to be known as the Helmholtz school of medicine, the physiologist du Bois-Reymond, in a letter of 1842 to his colleague Carl Ludwig: "Briicke and I pledged a solemn oath to put into effect this truth: No other forces than the common physical-chemical ones are active within the organism.
But this meaning disappears as soon as it is realized that even suggestion only releases sets of manifestations which are based upon the functional peculiarities of the hypnotized nervous system. . We possess no criterion which enables us to distinguish exactly between a psychical process and a physiological one, between an act occurring in the cerebral cortex and one occurring in the subcortical substance: for 'consciousness,' whatever that may be, is not attached to every activity of the cerebral cortex, nor is it always attached in an equal degree to any one of its activities...
The Existentialist Critique of Freud: The Crisis of Autonomy (Princeton Legacy Library) by Gerald N. Izenberg