By Daniel T. Larson, David G. Haase
Internal house -- the increase of the atom -- Organizing atoms -- The periodic desk of the weather -- Chemical bonds -- Radioactivity -- Nuclear power -- trouble-free particle physics
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Internal area -- the increase of the atom -- Organizing atoms -- The periodic desk of the weather -- Chemical bonds -- Radioactivity -- Nuclear strength -- effortless particle physics
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1 Isotopes and ions of helium. (a) The most common helium atom, 24He. It has a mass number of four because in addition to two protons, the nucleus contains two neutrons. (b) An isotope of helium with one fewer neutron in the nucleus, 23He. (c) A single ionized helium-4 ion, 24He + is positively charged because it has two protons but only one electron. (d) In a double ionized helium-4 ion, 24He ++ , both electrons are missing, so it has a positive charge of +2. you dissolve salt into a glass of water, the sodium and chlorine atoms separate into sodium ions, Na +, and chlorine ions, Cl −.
1 Dmitry Mendeleyev was a Russian chemist credited as the creator of the first version of the periodic table of the elements. 35 36 THE NATURE OF MATTER Before Mendeleyev, chemists already knew that there were some materials that were more fundamental than others. Some things, like salt, could be easily separated into other materials, in this case, sodium and chlorine. But try as they might, chemists couldn’t break the sodium or chlorine into anything else. As discussed in Chapter 2, such indivisible substances are called elements.
Those hydrogen bonds keep the molecules in a very open structure with lots of empty space. When heat is added and the block of ice melts, the hydrogen bonds are broken, the open structure collapses, and the water molecules are able to pack together more densely. This means that when water freezes into ice it becomes less dense and floats on top of the rest of the water. This means that during winter, fish in lakes still have liquid water to swim in even when the top layers are frozen. The polar nature of water molecules also makes it a good solvent.
The Nature of Matter by Daniel T. Larson, David G. Haase