By Beth Baron
Among 1892 and 1920 approximately 30 Arabic periodicals by way of, for and approximately girls have been produced in Egypt for circulate round the Arab international. This e-book is a historical past of such texts which explores the connections among literary tradition and social transformation.
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Among 1892 and 1920 approximately 30 Arabic periodicals by means of, for and approximately girls have been produced in Egypt for movement round the Arab international. This ebook is a historical past of such texts which explores the connections among literary tradition and social transformation.
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Extra resources for The Women's Awakening in Egypt: Culture, Society, and the Press
107. See also BehrensAbouseif, Islamic Architecture in Cairo, 112. LEVANONI_F2_1-20 10/20/03 1:34 PM Page 19 19 from 1295,50 it had appeared in Aleppo as early as 589/1193 in the madrasa of Sadbaht, and in Damascus in 1213,51 subsequently becoming prevalent throughout Syria. g. Fàtimid at least in the early Mamluk period—to express and enhance the intent of the imperial patrons, Syria’s prevailing architectural style perpetuated the patterns set by local tradition. 53 However, as we have seen above, according to the chronicles, Baybars wanted the portal of his Great Mosque, built in the years 1266–69, to reproduce the portal of his madrasa— which is not a muqarnas portal, but features arches elaborately decorated with cushion voussoir and zigzag patterns, which were chosen because of their association with the architecture of their enemies 50 Burgoyne, Mamluk Jerusalem, 92: “the earliest and one of the most remarkable is the Dawàdàriyya (695/1295) which is of a particular type developed earlier in Damascus .
The portal of the Red Mosque is an impressive artistic feat indeed. Its complexity is expressed not only in the virtuosity of the stonework, but also in the relationship between the units: the geometry, the light and shade eﬀects, the rhythm of the protrusions, the proportions of the three-dimensional forms, and the numbers of tiers. Baybars’s portal thus masterfully demonstrates what T. Allen observed, referring to Ayyubid architecture: “This is what geometry means. . ”45 It is worth mentioning here that notwithstanding the repeated restorations and repairs that it has undergone over the centuries, the Red Mosque at Safed manifests elements of a well-deﬁned regional style in type, scale and ornamentation that characterized the artistic centers of both Damascus and Aleppo and, from 1293 on, also of Tripoli, which was rebuilt by Qalàwùn after the Crusaders were repelled.
In the Red Mosque at Safed, as in other Mamluk mosques in Syrian cities, the facade is plain and devoid of decoration, apart from the monumental portal, so prominent in its height and warm reddish limestone shade. 36 Apparently this reddish stone was brought from elsewhere, since the stone quarry near the entrance to the city provided a white stone, as it does to this day. 50 meters deep and 3 meters wide. It is thus twice as wide as deep. According to Terry Allan’s “Muqarnas Questionnaire”37 these became the standard proportions 35 Y.
The Women's Awakening in Egypt: Culture, Society, and the Press by Beth Baron