By Stephen Ruzicka
Trouble within the West provides the 1st complete and non-stop account of the Persian-Egyptian conflict, a clash that endured for almost the two-hundred-year length of the Persian Empire. regardless of its prestige because the biggest of all historic Persian army enterprises--including any geared toward Greece--this clash hasn't ever been reconstructed in any targeted and finished means. hence, Trouble within the West adds drastically to our knowing of Persian imperial affairs. whilst, it dramatically revises our knowing of jap Mediterranean and Aegean affairs by means of linking Persian dealings with Greeks and different peoples within the west to Persia's primary, ongoing Egyptian issues. during this examine, Stephen Ruzicka argues that Persia's Egyptian challenge and, conversely, Egypt's Persian challenge, have been even more very important within the japanese Mediterranean and Aegean worlds than our traditional Greek-centered standpoint and resources have allowed us to work out. In taking a look at this clash as one level in an everlasting east-west clash among successive close to jap imperial powers and Egypt--one which stretched throughout approximately the complete of historical history--it represents an immense turning element: by way of pulling in distant western states and peoples, who for this reason turned masters of Egypt, western competition to close japanese strength was once sustained correct as much as the seventh century Arab conquests. For classicists and historians of the traditional close to East, Trouble within the West will function a precious, and long-overdue, resource.
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Additional resources for Trouble in the west : the Persian Empire and Egypt, 525-332 BCE
Though no longer an imperial state, Egypt remained a sizable kingdom, but elsewhere, after 1100, small-scale political units—regional or city kingdoms and chiefdoms with only local interests—were the rule. 5 However, in response to local problems, critical developments of lasting significance occurred after 1100 in both Egypt and Mesopotamia, the western and eastern cores. Faced with persistent threats from their west (Libya) and south (Nubia) and with an ever-increasing need for ready troops, Egyptian kings began to install peasant-warriors, primarily Libyans and originally often prisoners of war, in settlements in the Delta.
Egyptian strategy, however, never really looked beyond the middle territory. The farthest advance of Egyptian arms during the whole struggle with Assyrian and Babylonian kings was to the middle Euphrates region, where in 616 troops dispatched by Psammetichus I joined Assyrian forces at Carchemish in countering Babylonian attacks and where in 609 Necho II attempted a siege of Harran. But these were forays aimed at securing the middle territory, not at acquiring bases for more distant conquests. Egyptian kings might campaign far afield with their machimoi (and, on the evidence of such prophets as Isaiah [30:2–5, 31:1, 36:8] and Ezekiel [17:15], promise or dispatch chariots and horsemen to would-be allies in the middle territory), but they did not systematically use these native troops as garrison troops and relied instead on alliances with and subsidies to local rulers to P E R S I A A N D E G Y P T: T H E H I S TO R I C A L C O N T E X T [ 11 ] sustain Egyptian influence in the middle territory.
3). Plato (Tim. 24) assigns them the lance or spear as their characteristic weapon. Egyptian machimoi appear in Persian service in 480 as marines armed with boarding spears and poleaxes (Hdt. 3). Their evident use of various arms suggests that machimoi were in fact versatile and, appropriately for professional warriors, not limited to the use of a single weapon. Machimoi, Herodotus writes, each had twelve arourae of tax-free land. This (about eight acres) was more than twice what was needed to support a single family and may indicate maintenance of more than one generation on a single allotment.
Trouble in the west : the Persian Empire and Egypt, 525-332 BCE by Stephen Ruzicka