By Paul Kutsche
"Examining migration via lifestyles histories places flesh on analytical bones. . . . Kutsche is an astute interviewer with a true ability to set up rapport along with his informants. . . . not anything like this publication exists within the Latin American migration literature."--Leigh Binford, college of Connecticut
"Chico" and "Beto" got here to San José blind to urban existence and now ponder returning to their houses in rural Costa Rica; "El Negro" forges a modest, reliable existence within the urban; "El Visionario" lives out a romantic dream yet participates within the political lifetime of his squatter payment; "Primitiva" turns out detached to her atmosphere; "El Viejo" got here to the town to coach his youngsters and retire.
Their tales, six of the fourteen female and male lifestyles histories Paul Kutsche offers, emphasize the psychic charges of migration and display the non-public features that correlate with good fortune or failure in relocating from the rustic to the city. Like Oscar Lewis's Children of Sanchez, this booklet places a face at the phenomenon of migration. Kutsche follows the tape-recorded interviews (which he translated from Spanish into English) into channels dictated through his matters, giving them freedom to build their very own lives, as a lot within the development as in its veracity.
Kutsche starts with a quick historical past of Costa Rica that examines the jobs of agriculture, economics, politics, and the surroundings in developing the stipulations for rural-urban migration; he concludes that individuals with decrease aspirations approximately migration have a better price of success.
While Costa Rica seems to be abnormal of different crucial American countries--more peaceable, extra pleasant, and extra open to foreigners--Kutsche concludes that what's taking place in San Jose "differs little from a similar technique somewhere else in what optimists wish to name 'developing' nations. . . . i don't see the 3rd international catching as much as industrialized components inside of any situation wanting turning the family members of energy completely upside down." placing a face at the means of migration may well enlighten readers in English-speaking international locations "where the commercial judgements are made that form the towns of the 3rd World."
Paul Kutsche is professor emeritus of anthropology at Colorado College. he's the coauthor of Canones: Values, drawback and Survival in a Northern New Mexican Village and the editor of Survival of Spanish American Villages, and he has written a number of articles and studies for pro journals.
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Additional resources for Voices of migrants: rural-urban migration in Costa Rica
Particularly when the aguinaldo (payment of a thirteenth month's wages as an end-of-year bonus) became mandatory for public and private employment, the vested interests of the state and to an extent private bureaucratic apparatus created pressures that no elite could counter. Stone calls introducing the aguinaldo "riding a tiger" because once it was introduced no one could control it. The advantages of bureaucratic employment are among the attractions that draw migrants to the city, although most are disappointed when they discover they lack the educational and skill qualifications to hold such jobs.
Political and military dependence may or may not accompany economic dependence and are not essential to defining the ideal type. Costa Rica became a dependent (satellite or periphery) of Spain as soon as the first Europeans settled there and began to export cacao. Compared to other Central American countries, however, Costa Rica was only nominally underdeveloped during the colonial period. It became dependent (underdeveloped) in wholesale fashion in the 1830s and 1840s, when it began to grow and to export coffee.
Within a few decades the country had reversed its position relative to the rest of Central America. The province that had been the poorest and most isolated in all the Isthmus had become the richest and best educated, and the one boasting the closest ties with Europeespecially with England and France. It had the first railroad uniting its capital and both coasts, and the first electricity in its cities (Stone 1976:90). The increase in the country's wealth resulting from coffee production was dramatic, but the hierarchy of classes changed little.
Voices of migrants: rural-urban migration in Costa Rica by Paul Kutsche