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Read e-book online Why Science Matters, Understanding the Methods of PDF

By Robert W. Proctor

ISBN-10: 1405130490

ISBN-13: 9781405130493

ISBN-10: 1405133570

ISBN-13: 9781405133579

Why technology issues: realizing the tools of mental examine rises above ordinary examine equipment texts by means of offering an up to date view of latest mental technology because it is at the moment understood and practiced. Explores not just the procedural elements of mental examine, but additionally delves into the difficulty of ways to complete potent science.Explicates how hypotheses and theories are to be evaluated.Suggests that the right kind method of devising and comparing theories is by means of abduction, now not by means of induction or deduction alone.Incorporates new investigatory tactics, present methodologists, conflicts and matters, implications of the philosophy of technological know-how, and a full of life prose style.Provides an image of technological know-how that may have interaction scholars and extend their skills as either scientists and psychologists.

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And, according to Kuhn, these reasons are “furthermore, reasons of exactly the kind standard in philosophy of science: accuracy, scope, simplicity, fruitfulness, and the like” (1970b, p. 261). , Curd & Cover, 1998; Gholson & Barker, 1985; Laudan, 1996). For example, in listing accuracy, scope, simplicity, and fruitfulness as criteria for theory evaluation, Kuhn indicated in other places that individuals may evaluate each of these criteria differently and arrive at different conclusions. In any event, it is interesting to note that Kuhn’s influence was profound on relativists and non-relativists alike, and he may be considered one of the major intellectual figures of our time.

According to the naturalistic turn of mind, however, the question of whether auxiliary hypotheses should be employed is an empirical matter to be determined as any other empirical matter is determined, that is, by how well it works in practice. What we should determine as naturalists is whether invoking auxiliary assumptions has had favorable or unfavorable empirical and theoretical consequences in the past, and under what circumstances. By a favorable consequence we mean that invoking an auxiliary hypothesis actually resulted either in new information or in saving the theory, and possibly improving the theory, in a non-arbitrary way.

Such a procedure is always possible, but it rescues the theory from refutation only at the price of destroying, or at least lowering, its scientific status. ) 32 Major Issues to Emerge in 20th Century Approaches to Science One can sum up all this by saying that the criterion of the scientific status of a theory is its falsifiability, or refutability, or testability. (Popper, 1963, pp. 36–37) Popper’s falsification principle is a version of hypothesis testing, which is a very popular procedure in contemporary science.

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Why Science Matters, Understanding the Methods of Psychological Research by Robert W. Proctor


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