By John F. Shroder
A glance on the geographic, political, monetary, and social facets of Afghanistan, a rustic suffering to reconcile modernization with conventional values and methods.
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Extra resources for Afghanistan (Modern World Nations)
With Daoud’s departure, Muhammad Zahir Shah firmly grasped the reins of government. Although he had reigned for 30 years, the affairs of government had been in the hands of his The Age of European Imperialism Although Muhammad Zahir Shah officially served as king of Afghanistan from 1933 to 1973, it wasn’t until he implemented a constitutional monarchy in 1964 that he fully took control of the country. Zahir Shah (second from left) is pictured here at a meeting in Paris with French president Charles de Gualle; de Gualle’s wife, Yvonne (left); and his wife, Homaira (right), in 1963.
The nineteenth century witnessed tribal conflicts and the intrusion of European imperialism (controlling influence) into the area. Afghanistan became a battleground in the rivalry between Great Britain and czarist Russia for control of Central Asia. Two AngloAfghan Wars (1839–1842 and 1878–1880) ended inconclusively. After the second Anglo-Afghan War, the British supported Abdur Rahman Khan’s claim to the Afghan throne, and set out to establish the borders all around their version of the nation of Afghanistan.
While the United States and the Soviet Union both hoped to gain an ally and counter the moves of the other, the Afghans saw little difference between the two. Their relationships with the Soviet Union and the United States tended to reinforce Afghan nationalism, while serving the government’s efforts in modernization. PURDAH AND THE CHADRI The government of King Amanullah fell in 1929 because it abolished purdah and the chadri and established coeducational schools in Kabul. Nonetheless, the government of Daoud initiated similar measures in modernization.
Afghanistan (Modern World Nations) by John F. Shroder